Learning Goal: I’m working on a java exercise and need an explanation and answer

Learning Goal: I’m working on a java exercise and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.Class Design Part IIComposition, Encapsulation, Overloading, Constructors,Pass-By-Reference, Static, Final, Getters/SettersSummary In this lab we will design even more classes, using techniques we’ve covered in class. In each section, we’ll practice basic class design, encapsulation, overriding & overloading methods, building constructor definitions (including copy constructors), adding access modifiers to variables and methods, using getters/setters, and finally working with variables across method boundaries (i.e., understanding pass-by-reference vs pass-by-value).Classes As Contracts When we build a class to match a certain interface, we’re doing more than just “following the homework or instructor’s directions”. We’re agreeing to a contract of sorts, promising to have specific methods that accomplish specific tasks. We could define multiple class interfaces (think radio faceplate or front-end here) as we have done in this lab, and multiple teams working in parallel could develop them. We’ll practice this paradigm by reading about a class’s methods and data items it should have, then implementing those methods and data members ourselves. This is like me showing you an outline of a car we’re going to design, and you (the designer) filling in the outline with details about what it means to be a car. What can a car do? These actions will be defined as public methods in your interface. What is a car composed of? These things will be realized as instance variables defined in the Car class. Lets start by reading the brief descriptions of the classes below, and then designing each class to include the indicated methods and data – think of this part as you fulfilling a contract each time you build a class to a specific interface (interface: set of methods). Sometimes, when fulfilling a specified interface (like in the classes below and your second Fraction assignment), it may help conceptually to declare your data items first (what a class has) and then the methods that work on the defined data (what a class does); in this way, “Data structures programs”.Overview: In this lab, you’ll be creating 6 classes according to their specifications below. These are: Date, Shape, CharList, LineSegment, Fraction, Math2. Then you’ll be answering some questions (these questions are at the very bottom of this document) about the passByReferenceDemo() function which is in the driver we give you: Lab3Driver.java. (There are many other questions I ask throughout this lab, and you should make sure you know the answers to them, but you do not need to give me the answers in the code you turn in.) Turn in all six classes plus the driver (which you will change, adding tests to it and answering the questions in it).The Date Class This class will function similarly in spirit to the Date class in the text, and behaves very much like a “standard” class should. It should store a month, day, and year, in addition to providing useful functions like date reporting (toString()), date setting (constructors and getters/setters), as well as some basic error detection (for example, all month values should be between 1-12, if represented as an integer). Start this by defining a new class called “Date”, and implement the data items and methods listed in your “contract” below. By declaring both data and methods that will operate on this data in one file, we are “wrapping up” chunks of dedicated functionality (methods) with the data items that they operate on in one clean and simple abstraction: the Class.Class Invariants: Enforce the following “rules” that your class should never violate. By doing this you maintain the coherency of your object’s internal state – this is also known as “never invalidating the state (data) of your object”. In our Fractions homework, this would involve modifying getters/setters so as to never accept a zero denominator. Here we’ll consider some invariants for the Date class:All month values should be in between 1-12All day values should be in between 1-31All year values should be positive.Data Members:Declare variables for month, day, and year.Should these be private? public?Things to think about (and know for tests):What is the difference between the public and private access modifiers?When data is defined as static…Can it be accessed or read?Can it be written to?When data is defined as final…Can it be accessed/used or read?Can it be written to other than the first initialization?Why would it be ok to declare a final (or static final) variable as public?Later: How does the concept of a final variable relate to Immutable classes?Method Members:Provide getter/setter methods for each of the variables aboveProvide logic in your setter methods to observe the following Class InvariantsWhat would be a good thing for your setter to do if the user tries to use it to violate the Class Invariants?public Date() {}This is the default no-arg constructor.Have your default date be June 23, 1912public Date(int m, int d, int y);Should we use month = m; or setMonth(m)? What are the differences?public Date(Date other);This method is a copy constructor; initialize your object’s data members (this.month, etc) using “other”.public String toString(); // returns a String in the format “6/7/1958”public boolean equals(Object other);As in all equals members: first check that other isn’t null, then check that it’s of the same class type as this one (in this case, Date), then cast other to an object that’s of this class type (Date). Then use this new Date object (we’ll call it that instead of other), to compare against the current object (this):if( other == null || ! (other instanceof Date )) return false;Date that = (Date)other; // from now on, use that to compare to thisSee Fraction equals() for proper null-check and casting.Sample Output:— a bunch of passed tests. Can you think of more you would add?The Shape Class When designing your Square and Circle classes from last week, it would have been useful to have a template to start from, rather than starting from scratch. Let’s define such a template here, a class that will contain data items common to all Shapes (such as an X, Y, or a Color – all shapes have these elements). We’ll include a few methods that won’t be used by this labDriver, but don’t worry…these may prove useful in the future. We’ll be satisfied here with designing yet another class, even if some of the methods are just stubs for now. For our Paint program as it stands currently, all shapes will have the following data items and methods…Class Invariants:Declare 4 class invariants for the Shape class as comments and submit them. Put them in the Javadoc comments that go before the class definition.What might be a good invariant? Think about how we might use this Shape…TO DO: declare invariants for this Shape class in comments at the top of the Shape class.Data Members:(all data here is private)Declare an x and a y.Declare a Color object.import java.awt.Color; //be sure to do this! This is how you get access to the Color class.Instance Methods:public Shape();public Shape(int x, int y, Color color); //remember imports for class Colorpublic Shape(Shape other); //copy constructorpublic String toString(); //describe your shape’s x,y, color, etc.public void setX(int x); // remember your invariants!public void setY(int y); // remember your invariants!public double getArea(); //to be replaced by subclasses, so just return -1 herepublic void draw(Graphics g); //to be used by the paint program, so this can be empty for nowbe sure to: import java.awt.Graphics;Sample Output*:a: (0,0) – java.awt.Color[r=255,g=0,b=0](Should be default shape values)a: (120,0) – java.awt.Color[r=255,g=0,b=0](Should be (120,0) – default colorb: (10,140) – java.awt.Color[r=64,g=64,b=64](Should be: (10,140)- dark gray)c: (10,10) – java.awt.Color[r=64,g=64,b=64](Should be: (10,140)- dark gray)(*But your output might be different depending on how you formatted the output of your toString() and what your default values are. (I made my default color be red, for example.)The CharList Class (A.k.a String or StringBuffer Class) The term mutable (think editable) is used to describe classes whose internal state (data) can change as the object is used. But some classes are unusual in that once created & initialized via a constructor, they never change their internal data for the lifetime of the object. We call such objects Immutable. The java.lang.String class is one example of this. Immutability is like a “read-only” characteristic; the data may be observed and “gotten” but is never changed or “written to”. We’ll discuss privacy leaks shortly in class, but it’s worth noting here that since an Immutable object can’t be changed, we don’t have to worry about privacy leaks across getter/setter boundaries when those that do the getting/setting cannot change your object. Think of this as similar to a “public static” data item – we don’t worry about making it private, since there is no damage an external client can do to these data items. We’ll build a String class here that is really just a CharList or IntList variation that we’ve seen before. Start by defining a new class called “CharList” and implement the data and method members below. (Note that our CharList is like the String class, but it’s mutable (not immutable), because you can add new characters to a CharList instance.)Class Invariants:You may assume no string will grow beyond 100 characters in this lab.Data Members:An array to store characters.Should we make this data private?An integer variable used to track the number of charactersMethods:public CharList() {}public CharList(String startStr); //use string to set up internalspublic CharList(CharList other); //copy constructor ; be sure to check for null inputpublic void add(char next); //Could we make this so it dynamically grows to accommodate more than 100 elements? What would we need to do to be able to do that?public char get(int index); // gets the character at this index.public int size(); // returns the size of the CharListpublic String toString();Return a string that is the concatenated result of combining every character in your char array. (In other words: no spaces between your characters, and no spaces at the beginning or end either.)public boolean equals(Object other) {if( other == null || !(other instanceof CharList )) return false; //follow this pattern to check for null and verify class typesCharList that = (CharList) other; //use this vs. that from this point onTwo strings are the same if they share the same length and the same charactersSample Output:a is :katnis and has 6 charsb is :Batman and has 6 charsc is :Batman and has 6 charsB and A are equal : falseB and C are equal : trueThe LineSegment Class – Class Composition (“Has a”) & Privacy Leaks Find your Point2D.java class that you built in the previous lab. The Point2D should store an x and y coordinate pair, and will be used to build a new class via class composition. A Point2D has a x and a y, while a LineSegment has a start point and an end point (both of which are represented as Point2Ds). Note that when a class offers getters/setters for a primitive, pass-by-value ensures that changes to copies of a private primitive won’t affect the original primitive. But when we pass objects to and from methods (as we do with getters and setters), objects are shared due to pass-by-value – and what is really getting passed when you pass an object is a memory address. (When we pass an object’s memory address, or in general pass an object in a way that we can change it, we call this pass-by-reference.) This results in a privacy leak: objects you marked as private are still directly accessible due to the memory semantics involved with pass-by-reference. As a result, when we get and set objects, extra care in the form of cloning objects is required to avoid such privacy leaks. In the end, we’ll copy our objects and emulate pass-by-value with our objects so that people who try to “get” our private objects actually get a clone of the object – if they destroy the clone, your private state objects will not be affected. Pay special attention to the getters/setters associated with your start and end points; notice how eclipse incorrectly writes this code, too.Class Invariants:The start and end points of a line segment should never be null.Initialize these to the origin instead.Data Members:All data will be private.A LineSegment has a start pointThis is a Point2D objectA LineSegment also has an end point.This is also a Point2D objectMethods:Create a default, no-arg constructorThis should define the start point and the end point to be at the originCreate an overloaded constructor that takes a start point and an end pointThis should check for null’s for the start and end pointCreate a copy constructor (also overloaded) that takes a LineSegment object called other and initializes this using other.public LineSegment(LineSegment other) {// should we do any checks on other? What if it’s null?Create getters and setters for your start and end points:public Point2D getStartPoint() { …public void setStartPoint(Point2D start) { ……and similarly for end pointCreate a distance() function that will calculate the line distance using the distance formulaReturns a doubleHint: Math.sqrt(), Math.abs()Create a toString() function to build a string composed of the startPoint’s toString() and endPoint’s toString()Should look like “Line start(0,0) and end(1,1)”(Make sure that Point2D’s toString() works right.)Create an equals method that determines if two LineSegments are equalpublic boolean equals(Object other) {if(other == null || !(other instanceof LineSegment)) return false; //use this as the first lineLineSegment that = (LineSegment) other; //after this line, use this vs. thatreturn start and end points are equal, (requires an equals in the Point2D class)Uncomment the method call in main to invoke the driver associated with the LineSegment code.Fix each error as you encounter them in the driver for LineSegmentRun the driver code to test your LineSegment class.Consider the following questions as you work on your LineSegment code:What is a privacy leak?Do your getters or setters have privacy leaks?Where else could a privacy leak occur?Sample Output:Various tests passing, plus tests of your ownThe Fraction Class – Immutable Classes In this section, we’ll build another Fraction class that is unchangeable once initialized and uses the keyword final for its numerator and denominator. Such a Fraction object will have all of its data declared final, and is our first example of building an immutable class. Once a Fraction object is built, its data items will never change for the lifetime of the object. Another way to view this is that the object is completely read-only. As a result, its data will also be declared public, which is the only example of public data you’ll find in this quarter. If you wish to change a fraction object’s numerator or denominator, the old object must be discarded and a new object created in its place. Again, this object’s data will be immutable, constant, non-variable, unchangeable, non-editable, or read-only. So, to add two fractions, our add function will return a new Fraction object that is the sum of the two previous (unchangeable) fractions we wish to add. Once you’ve built this class, uncomment out the appropriate tests in the driver for this lab. Start by building a new Fraction class, and define the following members:Class Invariants:Numerators and denominators are unchangeable once set by the constructor.No denominator will be stored as a 0. (i.e., no DivideByZero Exceptions).A Fraction is always in reduced form (reduce in the constructor to ensure this).Data:Define a numerator that is public and final.Why don’t we make this data private?Define a denominator that is public and final.What data types should these items be?Methods:Define a constructor that takes a numerator and a denominatorDo not define a no-argument constructor. (Why?)Define a constructor that takes a Fraction object and makes a copy of it.public Fraction(Fraction other){…}Define a toString() function as we’ve done for other classes.Define an add function that takes a fraction, adds it to this, then returns a new Fraction object that is the result of the addition of the twopublic Fraction add(Fraction that) {//add this and that together; remember to consider the denominator here!Define an equals(Object o) function that has the form: public boolean equals(Object other) { if ( other == null || ! (other instanceof Fraction ) ) return false; //what does this code do? Fraction that = (Fraction) other; //and this code? //to do: code goes here }Sample Output:Various tests, plus your ownThe Math2 Class – Static Classes Other types of unusual classes include so-called “utility” classes, which are unique in that you don’t need to make an object of the class to use methods defined in the class. Math is a good example here; we don’t make a new Math object to use min() or random() – we just call the function with the class name to the left of the dot ( Math.min() ) rather than the object variable name. JOptionPane.showMessageDialog() or Integer.parseInt(String) are other examples of helper (static) methods that need no object target to execute. We can even go so far as to completely block instantiation of such a class by defining one constructor and making it private. Note how a method must be declared “static” for you to be able to call it without an object target. If a static method wishes to reference non-local variables, those data items must also be declared static. In this context, we can make the most sense of a method marked static by thinking of it in terms of “no target object” and thus no “this” implicit or explicit reference. If we have no “this” reference, we also cannot access any instance variables (ie, any variable whose full name would be “this.x”, “this.numerator”, etc.). The methods defined in the Math2 class should be declared static; data like PI or E should also be declared as static or “owned by no object – shared amongst all objects”.Class Invariants:All methods & data must be static.Data:Define a static constant (use final) for the mathematical constant PI.Define a second constant for E.Should we make this data private? public?Note that we avoid calling this section Data Members, as these are not instance variables but rather static, shared data.Methods:public int max(int a, int b);public double max(double a, double b);public int pow(int base, int exp);(Anything else you need to do to those method headers?)Sample Output:Tests passed, plus add your ownFinal Section: Pass-By-Reference & Pass-By-Value Demo in the ClassDesignIIDriver ClassLook inside the driver class to find the passByReferenceDemo() function.Uncomment this function call in mainOn observing the execution of the demo code, answer the following questions (put answers in the comments at the top of the driver…What is the primary difference between passing a primitive to a method versus passing an object?When a primitive is passed to a method, does the scope of that primitive change (i.e., grow to include the called method)?What about when an object is passed to a method?How then would you describe the scope of an object that has been passed to a method?

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